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Guides

The information within these guides should be helpful to anyone who works with bare circuit boards and circuit board assemblies. These guides are packed with illustrations and videos and follow popular IPC standards.

These guides will help you through the maze of challenges you face when working on modern, high density circuit boards. If your company complies with ISO-9000 or any demanding quality standard, you can refer to these guides as your on-line reference.

Guides in sections 1 through 6 detail the proper step-by-step techniques, tools and materials, and cautions needed to reliably repair and modify bare and assembled circuit boards.

Guides in sections 7 through 9 detail the proper step-by-step techniques, tools and materials, and cautions needed to reliably rework assembled circuit boards covering soldering, desoldering and BGA rework procedures.

Each procedure includes a "Conformance Level" indicated as high, medium or low. This Conformance Level indicates how closely the repaired or reworked product will be to the original specifications. The Conformance Level listed for each procedure should be used as a guide only.

Each procedure also includes a "Skill Level" providing a gauge for the requisite experience and skill needed by the operator to obtain a reliable outcome.

Skill Levels are listed as intermediate, advanced, or expert. The Skill Level recommended should be used as a guide only.

Hundreds of detailed illustrations, as shown below, are included throughout this guidebook.

Visit the Foreword for more information on this guidebook and how it can be used at your company to reduce waste.
1.0 Foreword
Introduction to our comprehensive circuit board repair and rework guidebook.
Conformance Level: N/A | Minimum Skill Level: N/A
 
2.0 Basic Procedures
List of procedures covering handling, cleaning, coatings, baking, legends, and epoxy mixing.
Conformance Level: N/A | Minimum Skill Level: N/A
 
2.1 Handling Electronic Assemblies
Procedure covers ESD, EOS, safe work areas and handling and storage methods.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
2.2 Cleaning
Procedure outlines various cleaning methods for circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: N/A | Minimum Skill Level: N/A
 
2.2.1 Cleaning, Local
Procedure covers localized cleaning of circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
2.2.2 Cleaning, Aqueous Batch Process
Procedure covers aqueous batch cleaning of circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
2.3.1 Coating Removal, Identification of Coating
Procedure covers the techniques for identifying various circuit board coatings.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
2.3.2 Coating Removal, Solvent Method
Procedure covers the methods for removal of coatings on circuit board assemblies using solvents.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
2.3.3 Coating Removal, Peeling Method
Procedure covers the methods for removal of thick coatings on circuit board assemblies using a peeling method.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
2.3.4 Coating Removal, Thermal Method
Procedure covers the methods for removal of coatings on circuit board assemblies using heat to overcure the coating.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
2.3.5 Coating Removal, Grinding/Scraping Method
Procedure covers the methods for removal of coatings on circuit boards assemblies using various grinding and scraping processes.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Expert
 
2.3.6 Coating Removal, Micro Blasting Method
Procedure covers the methods for removal of coatings on circuit boards assemblies using a micro abrasive blasting system.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Expert
 
2.4.1 Coating Replacement, Solder Mask
Procedure covers the methods for replacement of coatings and solder mask on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
2.4.2 Coating Replacement, Conformal Coating, Encapsulant
Procedure covers the methods for replacement of conformal coatings on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
2.4.3 Coating Replacement, Solder Mask, BGA Locations
Procedure covers the methods for replacement of of solder mask on circuit board assemblies at BGA component locations.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
2.5 Baking and Preheating
Procedure covers baking and heating methods for circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
2.6.1 Legend/Marking, Stamping Method
rocedure covers the methods for repair and replacement of legend and markings on circuit boards assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
2.6.2 Legend Marking, Hand Lettering Method
Procedure covers the methods for repair and replacement of legend and markings on circuit board assemblies
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
2.6.3 Legend Marking, Stencil Method
Procedure covers the methods for repair and replacement of legend and markings on circuit boards.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
2.7 Epoxy Mixing and Handling
Procedures covering method for epoxy mixing for use on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
3.0 Base Board Procedures
rocedures covering bow and twist repair, repair of non-plated holes and slots and base board repair.
Conformance Level: N/A | Minimum Skill Level: N/A
 
3.1 Delamination/Blister Repair, Injection Method
Procedure covers delamination and blister repair on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
3.2 Bow and Twist Repair
Procedure covering bow and twist repair on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
3.3.1 Hole Repair, Epoxy Method
Procedure covers minor repair of non-plated holes on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
3.3.2 Hole Repair, Transplant Method
Procedures covers major repair of damage to non-plated holes on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Expert
 
3.4.1 Key and Slot Repair, Epoxy Method
Procedure covers minor repair of key slots on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
3.4.2 Key and Slot Repair, Transplant Method
Procedure covers major of key slots on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Expert
 
3.5.1 Base Material Repair, Epoxy Method
Procedure covers minor repair of damaged base board around edges on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
3.5.2 Base Material Repair, Area Transplant Method
Procedure covers major repair of damaged base board within the inner area on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Expert
 
3.5.3 Base Material Repair, Edge Transplant Method
Procedure covers major repair of damaged base board around edges on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Expert
 
4.0 Conductor Procedures
Procedures cover repair of conductors, lands, pads, edge contacts, surface and internal circuits.
Conformance Level: N/A | Minimum Skill Level: N/A
 
4.1.1 Lifted Conductor Repair, Epoxy Method
Procedure to repair lifted conductors and circuits using liquid epoxy.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
4.1.2 Lifted Conductor Repair, Film Adhesive Method
Procedure to repair lifted conductors and circuits using a dry film epoxy method.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
4.2.1 Conductor Repair, Foil Jumper, Epoxy Method
Procedure covers repair of damaged conductors and circuits using liquid epoxy.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
4.2.2 Conductor Repair, Foil Jumper, Film Adhesive Method
Procedure covers repair of damaged conductors and circuits using a dry film epoxy method.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
4.2.3 Conductor Repair, Welding Method
Procedure covers repair of damaged conductors and circuits using a welding method.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
4.2.4 Conductor Repair, Surface Wire Method
Procedure covers repair of damaged conductors and circuits using a surface jumper wire.
Conformance Level: Medium | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
4.2.5 Conductor Repair, Through Board Wire Method
Procedure covers repair of damaged conductors and circuits using a jumper wire feeding through the circuit board assembly.
Conformance Level: Medium | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
4.2.6 Conductor Repair, Inner Layer Method
Procedure covers repair damaged conductors and circuits on inner layers on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Expert
 
4.2.7 Conductor Repair, Surface Plane, Film Adhesive Method
Procedure covers repair of damage to surface ground planes on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
4.3.1 Circuit Cut, Surface Circuits
Procedure covers methods to cut surface conductors on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
4.3.2 Circuit Cut, Inner Layer Circuits
Procedure covers method to cut inner layer conductors and circuits on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
4.3.3 Deleting Inner Layer Connection at a Plated Hole, Drill Through Method
Procedure covers method to delete connections at a plated through hole on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
4.3.4 Deleting Inner Layer Connection at a Plated Hole, Spoke Cut Method
Procedure covers method to delete connections at a plated through hole on circuit board assemblies by cutting the plated hole traces.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Expert
 
4.4.1 Lifted Land Repair, Epoxy Seal Method
Procedure covers method to repair lifted lands on circuit board assemblies using liquid epoxy.
Conformance Level: Medium | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
4.4.2 Lifted Land Repair, Film Adhesive Method
Procedure covers method to repair lifted lands on circuit board assemblies using dry film adhesive.
Conformance Level: Medium | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
4.5.1 Land Repair, Epoxy Method
Procedure covers method to repair damaged lands on circuit board assemblies using liquid epoxy.
Conformance Level: Medium | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
4.5.2 Land Repair, Film Adhesive Method
Procedure covers method to repair damaged lands on circuit board assemblies using dry film adhesive.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
4.6.1 Edge Contact Repair, Epoxy Method
Procedure covers method to repair damaged edge contacts on circuit board assemblies using liquid epoxy.
Conformance Level: Medium | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
4.6.2 Edge Contact Repair, Film Adhesive Method
Procedure covers method to repair damaged edge contacts on circuit board assemblies using dry film adhesive.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
4.6.3 Edge Contact Repair/Rework, Plating Method
Procedure covers method to repair damaged to the plating of edge contacts on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
4.7.1 Surface Mount Pad Repair, Epoxy Method
Procedure covers method to repair damaged surface mount pads on circuit board assemblies using liquid epoxy.
Conformance Level: Medium | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
4.7.2 Surface Mount Pad Repair, Film Adhesive Method
Procedure covers method to repair damaged surface mount pads on circuit board assemblies using dry film adhesive.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
4.7.3 Surface Mount, BGA Pad Repair, Film Adhesive Method
Procedure covers method to repair damaged BGA pads on circuit board assemblies using dry film adhesive.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
4.7.4 Surface Mount, BGA Pad with Integral Via Repair
Procedure covers method to repair damaged BGA pads that have an integral via on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: Medium | Minimum Skill Level: Expert
 
4.7.5 Surface Mount, BGA Pad, Integral Via, Circuit Extension Method
Procedure covers method to repair damaged BGA pads that have an integral via on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Expert
 
5.0 Plated Hole Procedures
List of procedures to repair damaged plated holes on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: N/A | Minimum Skill Level: N/A
 
5.1 Plated Hole Repair, No Inner Layer Connection
Procedure to repair damaged plated holes without inner layer connections on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
5.2 Plated Hole Repair, Double Wall Method
Procedure to repair damaged plated holes that have an inner inner layer connection on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: Medium | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
5.3 Plated Hole Repair, Inner Layer Connection
Procedure to repair damaged plated holes that have an inner inner layer connection on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: Medium | Minimum Skill Level: Expert
 
6.0 Jumper Wire and Component Modification Procedures
List of procedures covering jumper wires, modifications, and component lead cutting and lifting.
Conformance Level: N/A | Minimum Skill Level: N/A
 
6.1 Jumper Wires
Procedure covers methods for using jumper wires on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
6.2.1 Jumper Wires, BGA Components, Circuit Track Method
Procedure covers methods for using circuit tracks at BGA locations on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: Medium | Minimum Skill Level: Expert
 
6.2.2 Jumper Wires, BGA Components, Through Board Method
Procedure covers methods for using jumper wires at BGA locations on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Expert
 
6.3 Component Modifications and Additions
Procedure covers various component modifications and additions on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: N/A | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
6.4 Component Lead Cutting and Lifting
Procedure covers methods for cutting and lifting component leads on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: Medium | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
7.0 Soldering Procedures
Procedures including soldering basics, acceptance criteria, and soldering of through hole and surface mount components.
Conformance Level: N/A | Minimum Skill Level: N/A
 
7.1.1 Soldering Basics
Procedure covers the basic concepts for high quality soldering on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: N/A | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
7.1.2 Preparation For Soldering And Component Removal
Procedure covers preparation prior to soldering and component removal on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: N/A | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
7.1.3 Solder Joint Acceptance Criteria
Page covers includes tables and illustrations covering solder joint acceptance criteria on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: N/A | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
7.2.1 Soldering Through Hole Components, Point To Point Method
Procedure covers soldering of through hole components using point to point hand soldering.
Conformance Level: Medium | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
7.2.2 Soldering Through Hole Components, Solder Fountain Method
Procedure covers soldering of through hole components on circuit board assemblies using a solder fountain system.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Expert
 
7.3.1 Soldering Surface Mount Chip Components, Point To Point Method
Procedure covers soldering of surface mount chip components on circuit board assemblies using a point to point soldering method.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
7.3.2 Soldering Surface Mount Chip Components, Hot Gas Method Method
Procedure covers soldering of surface mount chip components on circuit board assemblies using a hot gas method.
Conformance Level: Medium | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
7.4.1 Soldering Surface Mount J Lead Components, Point To Point Method
Procedure covers soldering of surface mount J lead components on circuit board assemblies using a point to point soldering method.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
7.4.2 Soldering Surface Mount J Lead Components, Continuous Flow Method
Procedure covers soldering of surface mount J lead components on circuit board assemblies using a continuous flow soldering method.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
7.4.3 Soldering Surface Mount J Lead Components, Hot Gas Method
Procedure covers soldering of surface mount J lead components on circuit board assemblies using a hot gas method.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
7.5.1 Soldering Surface Mount Gull Wing Components, Point To Point Method
Procedure covers soldering of surface mount gull wing components on circuit board assemblies using a point to point soldering method.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
7.5.2 Soldering Surface Mount Gull Wing Components, Continuous Flow Method
Procedure covers soldering of surface mount gull wing components on circuit board assemblies using a continuous flow soldering method.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
7.5.3 Soldering Surface Mount Gull Wing Components, Hot Gas Method
Procedure covers soldering of surface mount gull wing components on circuit board assemblies using a hot gas method.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
8.0 Rework Procedures
List of procedures covering removal of through hole, chip and surface components.
Conformance Level: N/A | Minimum Skill Level: N/A
 
8.1.1 Component Removal, Through Hole Components, Vacuum Method
Procedure covers removal of through hole components on assembled circuit boards using a point to point vacuum method.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
8.1.2 Component Removal, Through Hole Components, Solder Fountain Method
Procedure covers removal of through hole components on circuit board assemblies using a solder fountain system.
Conformance Level: Medium | Minimum Skill Level: Expert
 
8.2.1 Component Removal, Surface Mount Chip Components, Forked Tip Method
Procedure covers removal of surface mount chip components on circuit board assemblies using a forked tip method.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
8.2.2 Component Removal, Surface Mount Chip Components, Hot Tweezer Method
Procedure covers removal of surface mount chip components on circuit board assemblies using a hot tweezer method.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Intermediate
 
8.3.1 Component Removal, Surface Mount J Lead Components, Conduction Method
Procedure covers removal of surface mount J lead components on circuit board assemblies using a conduction method.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
8.3.2 Component Removal, Surface Mount J Lead Components, Hot Gas Method
Procedure covers removal of surface mount J lead components on circuit board assemblies using a hot gas method.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
8.4.1 Component Removal, Surface Mount Gull Wing Components, Conduction Method
Procedure covers removal of surface mount gull wing components on circuit board assemblies using a conduction method.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
8.4.2 Component Removal, Surface Mount Gull Wing Components, Hot Gas Method
Procedure covers removal of surface mount gull wing components on circuit board assemblies using a hot gas method.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
9.0 BGA Component Rework and Reballing Procedures
List of procedures covering BGA component rework and reballing on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: N/A | Minimum Skill Level: N/A
 
9.1.1 BGA Component Rework Process Flow
Procedure reviews the component review process prior to reworking BGA components on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
9.1.2 BGA Component Rework Inspection
Procedure covers guidelines for inspection of reworked BGA components on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
9.1.3 BGA Component Reball Inspection
Procedure covers guidelines for inspection of reballed BGA components.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Expert
 
9.2.1 BGA Component Rework Profile Development, Standard Method
Procedure covers process steps to develop a BGA rework profile on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
9.2.2 BGA Component Rework Profile Development, Smart Track Method
Procedure covers process steps to develop a BGA rework profile on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Expert
 
9.3.1 BGA Component Rework
Procedure covers methods for BGA component rework on circuit board assemblies.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Advanced
 
9.4.1 BGA Component Reballing, Braid Ball Removal, Mini-Oven Attachment Method
Procedure covers BGA component reballing using solder braid ball removal and mini-oven attachment.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Expert
 
9.4.2 BGA Component Reballing, Braid Ball Removal, Reflow Oven Attachment Method
Procedure covers BGA component reballing using solder braid ball removal and reflow oven attachment.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Expert
 
9.4.3 BGA Component Reballing, Robotic Ball Removal, Mini-Oven Attachment Method
Procedure covers BGA component reballing using robotic ball removal and mini-oven attachment.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Expert
 
9.4.4 BGA Component Reballing, Robotic Ball Removal Reflow, Reflow Oven Attachment Method
Procedure covers BGA component reballing using robotic ball removal and reflow oven attachment.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Expert
 
9.5.1 BGA Component Removal, Machining Method
Procedure covers the process for removing a BGA component that was installed using non-reworkable underfill.
Conformance Level: High | Minimum Skill Level: Expert