This method is used to replace damaged and lifted lands. The damaged lands are replaced with new dry film, adhesive-backed lands. The new lands are bonded to the circuit board surface using a bonding press or bonding iron.
Caution: This method is used to replace a damaged or missing land, but the new land will not have an intermetallic connection to the remaining plated hole. The solder joint of the replaced component will restore the integrity of the electrical connection.
Caution: It is essential that the board surface be smooth and flat. If the base board is damaged, see appropriate procedure.
Note: This method uses new lands that are fabricated from copper foil and have a dry film adhesive coating on the back. They are available in hundreds of sizes and shapes and are generally supplied solder plated. If a special size or shape is needed, it can be custom fabricated.
Minimum Skill Level - Advanced
Recommended for technicians with soldering and component rework skills and exposure to most repair/rework procedures, but lacking extensive experience.
Conformance Level - High
This procedure most closely duplicates the physical characteristics of the original, and most probably complies with all the functional, environmental and serviceability factors.
Scraper, Curved Tip
Hardened stainless steel tip for scraping solder mask and removing defects.
Additional Items and Supplies
General purpose cleaner for removing contamination.
Precision microscope with stand and lighting for work and inspection.
Properly maintained soldering iron and properly sized soldering iron tips.
Multiple sizes and tip configurations of tweezers for various small parts handling needs.
Nonabrasive, low-linting wipes for cleanup.
Bonding Iron Tips
Bonding Iron Tips fit into the handheld Bonding Iron. The bottom surface of each Bonding Tip is used to apply heat and pressure to bond adhesive-backed replacement lands, pads, and edge contacts to a circuit board surface. The pressure/force listed is the recommended load in pounds to apply to the top surface of the replacement adhesive-backed pads, lands, and conductors. The load is based on the Bonding Tip surface area to meet the recommended load for Circuit Frames at 200 - 400 psi.
Circuit Bond Epoxy
Circuit Bond is a clear, low viscosity, superior strength epoxy precisely measured out into two-compartment plastic packages, so it's easy to use, and there's no measuring. For over a decade, this high-strength epoxy has been qualified and used by thousands of high-rel electronics manufacturers across the globe.
Circuit Bond has a working pot life of 30 minutes. It should not be mixed until ready to use.
To use Circuit Bond, remove the plastic clip separating the resin and hardener. Squeeze back and forth from one half of the package to the other to mix the contents.
Cut a corner off the package and squeeze all the contents into a Plastic Cup. Stir the contents to ensure it is thoroughly mixed.
Circuit Bond may contain bubbles from the mixing process. If needed, use a vacuum system to remove bubbles.
Color Agent can be mixed in with Circuit Bond to match surface colors if desired.
Apply using a Foam Swab, Micro Probe, or Mixing Stick as required.
Cure Circuit Bond for 24 hours at room temperature or 4 hours at 65°C (150°F).
2 gram pre-measured packages
4 parts resin to 1 part hardener
Mix Ratio by Weight (R/H)
24 hours at room temp (25 °C) or 4 hours @ 65°C
Viscosity (after mixing)
Operating temperature range
-55°C to 135°C
88 Shore D
Lap Shear, Alum to Alum
Glass Transition Temperature, Ultimate
Coefficient of Expansion, cm/cm/°C
Dielectric Constant, 1KHz@25°C
6 months minimum
Circuit Frames have a dry-film adhesive backing that is heat-cured in 30 seconds. Use Circuit Frames to repair and replace damaged surface mount pads, lands and conductors without the mess of liquid epoxy, with a bond strength equal to the original, in just a few minutes. The dry-film adhesive backing makes this delicate repair procedure easy, fast, and highly reliable. Circuit Frames are available with a bright tin, tin/lead and nickel/gold plating finishes. This reliable IPC recommended procedure meets the highest conformance level for this type of repair. For over 30 years Circuit Frames have been used by thousands of commercial, medical and military manufacturers around the globe. Below are examples for some Circuit Frame patterns.
Images and Figures
Figure 1: Remove the defective land and remove soldermask from the connecting circuit.
Figure 2: Select a replacement land that matches the missing land.
Figure 3: Scrape off the adhesive bonding film from solder joint area on the back of new land.
Figure 4: Cut out the new land. Cut from the plated side.
Figure 5: Place the new land in place using High Temperature Tape.
Figure 6: Bond the new land with a Bonding Iron.
Figure 7: Completed land repair.
Clean the area.
Remove the defective land and a short length of the connecting circuit, if any. (See Figure 1)
Use the knife and scrape off any epoxy residue, contamination, or burned material from the board surface.
Caution: Abrasion operations can generate electrostatic charges.
Scrape off any solder mask or coating from the connecting circuit. (See Figure 1)
Clean the area.
Apply a small amount of liquid flux to the connection area on the board surface and tin with solder. Clean the area. The length of the overlap solder connection should be a minimum of 2 times the circuit width.
The area for the new land on the board surface must be smooth and flat. If internal fibers of the board are exposed or if there are deep scratches on the surface, they should be repaired. Refer to the appropriate procedure.
Select a replacement land that most closely matches the land to be replaced. (See Figure 2)
Note: The new replacement land may be trimmed from a copper sheet.
Before trimming out the new land, carefully scrape off the adhesive film from the solder joint connection area on the back of the new land. (See Figure 3)
Caution: Scrape off the epoxy backing only from the joint connection area. When handling the replacement land, avoid touching the adhesive backing with your fingers or other materials that may contaminate the surface and reduce the bond strength.
Cut out and trim the new land. Cut out from the plated side. Cut the length to provide the maximum allowable circuit overlap for soldering. Minimum two times the circuit width. (See Figure 4)
Place a piece of High-Temperature Tape over the top surface of the new land. Place the new land into position on the circuit board surface using the tape to aid in alignment. (See Figure 5)
Select a bonding tip with a shape to match the shape of the new land.
Note: The Bonding Tip should be as small as possible but should completely cover the entire surface of the new land.
Position the circuit board so that it is flat and stable. Gently place the hot bonding tip onto the tape covering the new land. Apply pressure as recommended in the manual of the repair system or repair kit for 5 seconds to tack the land in place. Carefully peel off the tape. (See Figure 6)
Caution: Excessive bonding pressure may cause measling in the circuit board surface or may cause the new circuit to slide out of position.
Gently place the bonding tip directly onto the land. Apply pressure as recommended in the manual of the repair system or repair kit for an additional 30 seconds to fully bond the land. The bonding film is fully cured. After the bonding cycle, remove the tape used for alignment. Carefully clean the area and inspect the land.
If the new land has a connecting circuit apply a small amount of liquid flux to the lap solder joint connection area and solder the circuit from the new land to the circuit on the circuit board surface. Use minimal flux and solder to ensure a reliable connection. High-Temperature Tape may be placed over the top of the new land to prevent excess solder overflow.
Note: If the configuration permits, the overlap solder joint connection should be a minimum of 3.00 mm (0.125") from the related termination. This gap will minimize the possibility of simultaneous reflow during soldering operations. Refer to 7.1 Soldering Basics. Remove the tape and clean the area.
Mix epoxy and coat the lap solder joint connections. Cure the epoxy per Procedure 2.7 Epoxy Mixing and Handling. Note: Additional epoxy can be applied around the perimeter of the new land to provide additional bond strength.
Caution: Some components may be sensitive to high temperature.
Carefully remove any excess bonding film inside the plated hole using a ball mill or drill bit. Turn the ball mill or drill bit by hand to prevent damage to the wall of the plated through hole.
Install the proper component and solder in place.
Note: This method is used to replace a damaged or missing land, but the new land will not have an intermetallic connection to the remaining plated hole. The solder joint of the replaced component will restore the integrity of the electrical connection, or an eyelet or buss wire may be used. See Plated Hole Repair Procedures.
Apply surface coating to match prior coating as required.