4.7.4 Surface Mount, BGA Pad with Integral Via Repair
This method is used to replace damaged BGA pads with new dry film adhesive-backed pads. The new pads are bonded to the circuit board surface using a specially designed Bonding Iron. The electrical connection is made to a via which is originally manufactured integral to the pad.
Note: This method uses replacement BGA pads. The new pads are fabricated from copper foil. They are available in a variety of sizes and shapes and are generally supplied solder plated. If a special size or shape is needed, they can be custom fabricated.
Minimum Skill Level - Expert
Recommended for technicians with advanced soldering and component rework skills and extensive experience in most repair/rework procedures.
Conformance Level - Medium
This procedure may have some variance with the physical character of the original and most likely varies with some of the functional, environmental and serviceability factors.
Scraper, Curved Tip
Hardened stainless steel tip for scraping solder mask and removing defects.
Additional Items and Supplies
General purpose cleaner for removing contamination.
Precision microscope with stand and lighting for work and inspection.
General purpose oven for drying, baking and curing epoxies.
Properly maintained soldering iron and properly sized soldering iron tips.
Multiple sizes and tip configurations of tweezers for various small parts handling needs.
Nonabrasive, low-linting wipes for cleanup.
Bonding Iron Tips
Bonding Iron Tips fit into the handheld Bonding Iron. The bottom surface of each Bonding Tip is used to apply heat and pressure to bond adhesive-backed replacement lands, pads, and edge contacts to a circuit board surface. The pressure/force listed is the recommended load in pounds to apply to the top surface of the replacement adhesive-backed pads, lands, and conductors. The load is based on the Bonding Tip surface area to meet the recommended load for Circuit Frames at 200 - 400 psi.
Circuit Bond Epoxy
Circuit Bond is a clear, low viscosity, superior strength epoxy precisely measured out into two-compartment plastic packages, so it's easy to use, and there's no measuring. For over a decade, this high-strength epoxy has been qualified and used by thousands of high-rel electronics manufacturers across the globe.
Circuit Bond has a working pot life of 30 minutes. It should not be mixed until ready to use.
To use Circuit Bond, remove the plastic clip separating the resin and hardener. Squeeze back and forth from one half of the package to the other to mix the contents.
Cut a corner off the package and squeeze all the contents into a Plastic Cup. Stir the contents to ensure it is thoroughly mixed.
Circuit Bond may contain bubbles from the mixing process. If needed, use a vacuum system to remove bubbles.
Color Agent can be mixed in with Circuit Bond to match surface colors if desired.
Apply using a Foam Swab, Micro Probe, or Mixing Stick as required.
Cure Circuit Bond for 24 hours at room temperature or 4 hours at 65°C (150°F).
2 gram pre-measured packages
4 parts resin to 1 part hardener
Mix Ratio by Weight (R/H)
24 hours at room temp (25 °C) or 4 hours @ 65°C
Viscosity (after mixing)
Operating temperature range
-55°C to 135°C
88 Shore D
Lap Shear, Alum to Alum
Glass Transition Temperature, Ultimate
Coefficient of Expansion, cm/cm/°C
Dielectric Constant, 1KHz@25°C
6 months minimum
Circuit Frames have a dry-film adhesive backing that is heat-cured in 30 seconds. Use Circuit Frames to repair and replace damaged surface mount pads, lands and conductors without the mess of liquid epoxy, with a bond strength equal to the original, in just a few minutes. The dry-film adhesive backing makes this delicate repair procedure easy, fast, and highly reliable. Circuit Frames are available with a bright tin, tin/lead and nickel/gold plating finishes. This reliable IPC recommended procedure meets the highest conformance level for this type of repair. For over 30 years Circuit Frames have been used by thousands of commercial, medical and military manufacturers around the globe. Below are examples for some Circuit Frame patterns.
Images and Figures
Damaged BGA Pad
Figure 1: Remove the defective pad and prepare connecting via.
Figure 2: Mill or cut a shallow gully into the board surface from the via location to the outside edge of the affected pad.
Figure 3: Select a replacement pad that matches the missing pad.
Figure 4: Scrape off the adhesive bonding film from the solder joint connection area on the back of new pad.
Figure 5: Connecting circuit is fit into via.
Figure 6: Bond the new pad using a Bonding Iron.
Figure 7: Completed repair.
Clean the area.
Carefully remove the defective pad to avoid damaging the integral via.
Use a knife and scrape off any epoxy residue, contamination, or burned material from the board surface.
Scrape off any residue from the exposed via. (See Figure 1)
Clean the area.
Apply a small amount of liquid flux to the via connection on the board surface. Using the appropriate size solder braid, remove solder from the via. Clean the area.
In general, the area for the new pad on the board surface must be smooth and flat. If internal fibers of the board are exposed, or if there are deep scratches on the surface, they should be repaired. Refer to the appropriate procedure. In this procedure, a trough or gully must be recessed into the board from the via location to the outside edge of the affected pad. This permits the via-to-pad connecting circuit adequate space for routing without interfering with the pressing of the new BGA pad. (See Figure 2)
Select a replacement BGA pad that most closely matches the surface mount pad to be replaced. If a special size or shape is needed, they can be custom fabricated. (See Figure 3)
Note: New BGA pads are fabricated from copper foil. The foil is plated on the top side with solder, and an adhesive bonding film is applied to the bottom side.
Before trimming out the new pad, carefully scrape off the adhesive bonding film from the solder joint connection area on the back of the new pad. In order to ensure that the final pressed pad lays flat, it may be necessary to remove the film from the whole length of the connecting circuit up to the pad itself. (See Figure 4)
Caution: When handling the replacement pad, avoid touching the epoxy backing with your fingers or other materials that may contaminate the surface and reduce the bond strength.
Cut out and trim the new pad. Cut out from the plated side.
Turning the pad upside down, place the pad on the board so that the connecting circuit can be fit into the via. Ensure the connecting circuit is running over the previously cut trough. (See Figure 5) The connecting circuit of the new BGA pad will be inserted into the integral via hole of the original BGA pad.
Insert the connecting circuit into the via and carefully flux the connection area.
Solder the connecting circuit into the via.
Lay the connecting circuit into the bottom of the trough. If required, apply a securing film of high-strength epoxy over the connecting circuit to secure it in place and provide a flat surface on which to press the new BGA pad.
Fold over the new BGA pad 180 degrees and place the new pad into position on the circuit board surface using high-temperature tape to help in alignment
Select a bonding tip with a shape to match the shape of the new pad. See the bonding tip chart in the replacement parts section of the manual provided with the repair system or repair kit. (See Figure 6)
Note: The tip used for bonding should be as small as possible but should completely cover the entire surface of the new pad.
Position the circuit board so that it is flat and stable. Gently place the hot bonding tip onto the High-Temperature Tape covering the new pad. Apply pressure as recommended in the manual of the repair system or repair kit for 5 seconds to tack the new pad in place. Carefully peel off the tape.
Caution: Excessive bonding pressure may cause measling in the circuit board surface or may cause the new pad to slide out of position.
Gently place the bonding tip directly onto the new pad. Apply pressure as recommended in the manual of the repair system or repair kit for an additional 30 seconds to fully bond the pad. After the bonding cycle, remove the tape used for alignment. The new pad is fully cured. Carefully clean the area and inspect the new pad for proper alignment. (See Figure 7)
Additional epoxy can be applied around the perimeter of the new pad to provide additional bond strength. Mix epoxy. Cure the epoxy per Procedure 2.7 Epoxy Mixing and Handling. Use the maximum recommended heat cycle to ensure the highest strength bond. BGA pads are routinely subjected to one or more reflow cycles.
Caution: Some components may be sensitive to high temperatures.
Apply surface coating to match prior coating as required.